ttoring team stationed at nearby Rongenk
Atoll. the 64 residents of Rongelap Atoll and an
additional 18 Rongelapese who were gathenng
food neurby at Snfo Isiand. Ailinginae Atoll.
were removed to Kwajalein Atoll. some 300 km
to the south on 3 March 1984. Or March 3 anc
4. the more distant 157 Ltink Atoll residents
were moved. Durmng the first few weeks anc at
jeast once every sear from 1957 to the present.





medical team. orgamized bv the AEC (and ns
successor organizations; and tne Department of
Defense. has regularly conducted medical exammations to monitor the health and to evaluate
the radiobiological status of persons affected by
tropospheric failout from the BRAVO nuclear

Reports of their findings including whole-

body counting data and urine activity concentration data are available in Cr56, DuS6, Du”.
Wo59, CoS6. Co5&. Cod9, Co60. Co62, Co63.
Co65, Co6"?, Co7G. Co7S and Co&80a. These
reports may be consulted in order to easily

follow the information presented here. Esti-

mates of the immtial body burdens of internal
emitters were presented in Co55, Coh56 and
Coh60 and will not be discussed here. A reassessment of thyroid absorbed dose from the
iniual 1954 exposure is currently being made

and will be reported in a separate study. Since
April 1978. the bicassav program and whole-

body counting studies have been performed by
members of the Safety and Environmental Protection Division of BNL. Reports of their
findings maybe found in Gr77a. Gr77b, Le8Ga.
Le80b. Mi80, Mi8l and Na80. The report by
Lessard (Le80b) contains more detail on the
development of the equations used here.

The Utirik and Rongelap inhabitants were
returned to their homeatoll in June 1954 and in
June 1957, respectively. The earlier repatriation
of Utink Atoll was based on the low measured
level of external radiation exposure overa threemonth observation period. The Utink population was subsequently examined by a Brookhaven medical team during 1957; 144 people

received comprehensive physical examinations.
In 1957, the Rongelap inhabitants were also
returned to their atoll to occupy new homes,
community structures and otherfacilities which
had been constructed during their three-year


residence at Mauro and Kwajalein Atolls. Following the 1987 medical survey. Measurements

were made on two men from Lunk Atoll using

the whole-bods counter at Argonne National
Laboratory (ANL». Radiochemical analyses of

the:r urine sampies were also made. Four per-

sons from Rongelap Atoll also visited Argonne
for whole-body counting in 1957. In addition.
pooled urine samples from both atoll popu-

lauons were anaivzed radiochemucally for "Cs
and “Sr. The dody burdens measured at ANL
were corrected for 10 davs of biologic elim-

nauon and radiologic decay to estimate the
body burden while living on the atoll.
Startimg in May 1958. Conard and Cohn

(CoSG), measured whole-body levels of Cs.
“Zn and *Co in about 100 Rongelap adults,
adolescents and juveniles as part of the Brookhaven medical examination program. A portable whole-body counter with a standard chair
geometryin a shielded steel room was employed
(Cones). Whole-body counts were obtained in
the Rangelap and Lturnk populations in 1959




1965 (Co67).


(Co7Si and 1977 (Co80a). The counting geometry was converted to a scanning type shadowshield geometry starting in 1968 (Co67). Urine
samples were also collected in these surveys and

in additional medical surveys conducted in in-

tervening years. The samples were analyzed for
their radiochemica} content by both USNRDL
and the NYO-AEC Laboratones.

From 1978 to the present time. whole-body
counung measurements were performed with

the bed-type shadow shield whole-body counter
(C067). In 1980, a standard chair geometry was
once again used. All three counting systems
were intercalibrated and also calibrated against

the large BNL 54-detector whole-body counting
facility to ensure consistency of the whole-body
counting data over the past 28 yr.
A summary of the sequence of events
affecting the whole-body and urine activity measurements on the Rongelap and Utink people is
given in Fig. !. The detonation of BRAVO in
1954 was followed by the evacuation of Ron-

gelap Atoll at 2.2 days post-detonation and then

Utink Atoll at 3.5 days post-detonation. After
a three-month wait, the Utink people returned
in June 1954 and after three years Rongelap Atoll
was rehabilitated and occupied in June 1957.

mee gene re ee


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