measurements and later confirmed when the collected

environmental samples were analyzed.

The survey report issued by staff of FG&G who conducted the

aerial portion of the Northern Marshalis Survey states that

except for Bikini, Rongelap, and Rongerik Atolls, the island.
average values of external radiation were essentially
constant within each atoll.
This indicates that no sharp
gradients were observed in the radiation levels within these
The islands and atolls along the southern edge of
the survey area showed external radiation levels that are

very low.
The statement is made in this report that it would
be difficult with standard survey instruments to measure the
difference between radiation levels over water or over land
for the southern atolls surveyed, namely, Ailik, Likiep,
Wothe, and Ujelang.
These atolls have terrestrial radiation
levels lower than in the U.S. except that in the U.&. the
radiation is due primarily to naturally occurring

radioactivity, and that for these coral atolls is due to

Cesium-137 from fallout.
The Cesium-137 levels in soil of
these atolls are comparable to, and consistent with,
worldwide fallout levels.
After reviewing the survey reports it was my view that we had
surveyed the right islands and atolls, and that the
geographic extent of the survey was about right, i.e. we had
not surveyed islands and atolis that did not need é6urveying.
I am sad that the survey I helped initiate produced a report
that has received so much criticism and ridicule, and long

ago tired of waging a losing battle against changing the way
these survey results and radiological advice were presented
in the Marshalls. The survey report was confusing because it
presented estimates of risk and health effects in the next
thirty years due te future exposures without saying anything
about risks for exposures during the previous thirty years.
It appeared that important results were being withheld and

that the Marshallese were being required to make important
health and safety judgements using piecemeal rick


The report in

reted hypothetical risk and

heaith effects estimates too literally and pushed their usa
in health and safety judgements too far. The practice of
providing advice based on radiation standards was abandoned.
This was a frightening development, particularly for the
Rengelap people, some of whom received significant exposure
in 1954.

The Marshallese have yet to receive an explanation

of how estimates of past and future exposures fit together
into total exposure, how this total exposure may be
evaluated, and how their chronic exposures (annual dose

rates), past and future, compare with radiation protection



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